Thomas Berry began speaking of an “integral ecology” in the mid-1990s. For the most part, his understanding of integral ecology was expressed in lectures and conversations, not published texts. One exception to this is his essay on “An Ecologically Sensitive Spirituality” (1996). Here’s a very fragmented excerpt from the essay, which was finally published a few years ago in a wonderful collection, The Sacred Universe (Columbia UP, 2009).
We need an ecological spirituality with an integral ecologist as spiritual guide. […] The integral ecologist can now be considered a normative guide for our times. The integral ecologist would understand the numinous aspect of a universe emergent from the beginning. […] The integral ecologist is the spokesperson for the planet in both its numinous and its physical meaning […]. In the integral ecologist, our scientific understanding of the universe becomes a wisdom tradition. [pp. 135-135].
Also in the mid-90s, the liberation theologian Leonardo Boff began speaking and writing about integral ecology, seemingly independently of Berry. Like Berry, Boff emphasizes the cosmological breadth and spiritual depth of integral ecology. This cosmological and spiritual focus is also found in Ken Wilber, who developed his “all-quadrant all-level” (AQAL) model of Integral theory in the mid-90s and began applying it to ecology and environmental ethics, setting the stage for Sean Esbjörn-Hargens and Michael Zimmerman to write their gigantic AQAL-based work, Integral Ecology (2009).
This doesn’t mean that integral ecology is a synonym for eco-spirituality. Rather, integral ecology can refer to any approach to ecology that integrates spirituality (whatever “spirituality” is) with scientific knowledge of the universe. Such integration can go in a lot of directions, from new age holism to new feminist materialism…and everything in between.